Dogs are a social species; they live in companionship with others and tend to have a higher tolerance to the presence of familiar or unfamiliar members of their own species and other species. Dogs are required to fit in with the social life of humans; however, depending on where they live (rural or urban) and the culture with which they live in, the expectations on them can differ.
Socialisation is a special learning process that prepares an animal for their social and environmental life. Puppies are introduced in a safe and nonthreatening way to a variety of smells, sounds, sights, walking surfaces and interactions with unfamiliar people and dogs.
During socialisation an animal learns how to recognise and interact with members of its own (inclusive of different breeds), and other species (Seksel, 2010). He learns who his peers are, an ally or a stranger.
Socialisation is about learning to recognise and respond to the intentions of others: those friendly intentions, and threatening ones too. This is of most importance when it comes to learning about the species with which they live close to. Healthy cohabitation is reliant on accepting close proximity that comes from socialisation. Necessary socialisation and resultant learning will likely vary depending on the expectations and environment of the individual dog.